Buyer Behaviour And Motivation | Organisations Activities
The nature and scope of buyer behaviour – This behaviour can be described as the study of individuals and organisations activities in their efforts to obtain goods and services through the exchange process for the satisfaction of their needs and wants. It is essentially concern with the motives, learning, perception, experience and the outcomes of the decisions of buyers or debt holders in their pre-purchase, purchase, and post purchase activities. It derives from the modern marketing concept which aims at customer satisfaction. For the marketer to be able to satisfy customers needs and to have a good knowledge of their behaviour.
As a body of knowledge, buyer behaviour cuts across a number of quasi or social sciences. Prominent among these are psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. These social or behavioural sciences help to provide an understanding into the complex behaviour or buyer by making generalisations which hold true for most people in most places and most of the times. Three basic assumptions are held by these social sciences in their contributions to me understanding of buyers.
These are as follows;
- Buyer behaviour is human behaviour – This simply means that it has to do with behaviour of social beings. Individuals as well as societal factors should therefore be expected to interplay in determining buyers behaviour. Human behaviour is very complex, as it is affected by many factor, some of which may not even be known to the person concerned themselves. Because of this, the predictions of buyers behaviour are only generalisations, rather than infallible laws. These generalisation hold true for most people in most places and most of the times.
- Buyer behaviour is goal-directed – Buyer behave in certain ways in pursuance of special goals. This pre-supposes that people’s actions or decisions are motivated by definite goals or reasons. Buyers behaviour is therefore predictable. By this it means that it certain conditions are fulfilled, one can say beforehand with a measure of assurance that buyers would behave in a certain ways. For example, buyers would be expected to buy more of a products if its price is reduced, all things being equal.
- Buyer behaviour is rational behaviour – This means that buyer thinks or reason before they act. Their decisions are based on factors which are pre meditated and can be explained. Irrational or impulsive actions or behaviour of people (which they themselves may not even be able to explain) are outside the jurisdiction of buyers behaviour. Generally, speaking, buyers are economically motivated in their decisions. They want to maximize their welfare or the benefits they obtain from the goods or services they purchase.
The concern of marketers in the study of buyers’ behaviours is better understanding of human actions with respect to people’s buying accounts (roles). This understanding will enable marketers to properly predict, adjust to, or influence the purchase decisions. It must be understood that even the simplest of the purchase decisions of buying is complex. For example, a stationer who is attempting to sell a ball pen to a student would learn that the student decision to buy depends on the combination of a host of variables. These includes his past experiences with this particular brand of ball pen and other, awareness of the competing brands of ball pen and stationers, his need, income or purchasing power, personality (he may want to be envied or admired by his course mates), friends, as well as other factors. The extent to which these factors would influence other perspective buyers (such as students, lecturer, civil servants, executives and business tycoons) would differ considerably.
The complexity of buyers behaviour seems to make the task of the market in analysing, understanding, predicting, adjusting to or motivating it an impossibility. But it is not the contributions of the many behavioural sciences which are older than marketing and predate the study of buyer behaviour have greatly simplicfied things. Through the light which these disciplines have shed on human behaviour marketers knowledge about buyers behaviour has been greatly enhanced.
The Importance Of Buyer Behaviour
The heartbeat of marketing is the satisfaction of customers. The adoption of customer orientation entails having to study customers in order to be able to property identify and satisfy their needs. Knowing about customers or buyer will enable an organisation to enjoy a lot of benefits. It is these benefits from the understanding of buyers behaviour that have helped it to become strongly established as a discipline or area of emphasis in the practice of modern marketing. A number of these benefits shall be examined in this section.
- Knowledge of buyer behaviour is a pre- requisite for the identification and satisfaction of customers needs. Just as people differ in the psychological, social, economic, intellectual, and physical make-ups, they also differ in their needs and wants. The same things are also applicable to organisations. Marketers need to have a good knowledge of abut individual customers, organisations, and their purchasing personnel before their needs and wants have been or can be well defined. It is the only after needs and want have been properly defined or identified that the means of satisfying them can be designed and implemented. No wonders, therefore, why buyer behaviour began to receive great emphasis at the same time period that the customers orientation became poplar as a management philosophy.
- The formation of strategic marketing plans requires the knowledge about buyer behaviour. For an organisation to successfully develop effective products offering and motivate customers to adopt them rather than those of competitors, it is necessary to understand the nature of the buyer, what they buy, how they buy and where they buy, and what can be used to influence them. After implementing the strategic marketing plan, there is a need to measure its effectiveness for control purposes. This again demands a good knowledge of buyers. Their changing taste and circumstances and the extent to which they are satisfied with the organisation’s offering. For example, a firm that wants to penetrate Enugu State University of Science And Technology, Enugu, would have to find out what the students and staff want in terms of food and drinks and the extent to which they are satisfied by the services offered by the present restaurants in the University. It is the knowledge about the customers that would enabled the firm to know the strategy to use in entering this market and capturing it or a desired part of it.
- The knowledge of peoples consumption behaviour helps to facilitate the formulation and implementation of certain public policies, for example, if the government wants to formulate policies to destroy the wholesome demand for animals hides and skins as food (popularly called kpomo or kanda) it would have to study first the buying and consumption behaviour of the people for the products before taking any other action that can benefit or affect or can be effective. The information about why, how and where people use the products more as food than as leather, which has more foreign exchange and future economic values, would greatly enhance governments effort in changing the trend.
- One of the base for market segmentation is the behaviour of buyers. Different people buy at different times, frequencies, quantities, places and seek different qualities. Features and level of customers services along with the products. Some customers are more rational and seek more economic benefits than others. Other want to be more of the brand than their counterparts in the market. In defining, analysing and segmenting his target market, the marketer, therefore needs to understand the nature and behaviour of his actual and potential customers.
- The success of the motivation is much independent on the knowledge of the buyer behaviour. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to motivate or influence the behaviour of a free moral agent whose needs, experiences, perception, learning, beliefs, attitudes, culture, social class, reference group, family and personality we do not know. Yet, it is needed to change the buying behaviour or consumption pattern of some customers in order to enhance their long term as well as society’s well being. This makes the study of buyer behaviour an imperative one.
In conclusion, understanding the buyer’s behaviour goes a long way in determining the outcome of sales and that is in response to the production and distribution of the products and services alike.